Working Principle of Lathe Machine


Working Principle: The lathe is a machine tool which holds the workpiece between two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face plate which revolves. The cutting tool is rigidly held and supported in a tool post which is fed against the revolving work. The normal cutting operations are performed with the cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the work.

The cutting tool may also be fed at an angle relative to the axis of work for machining tapers and angles.


Construction: The main parts of the lathe are the bed, headstock, quick changing gear box, carriage and tailstock.


1. Bed: The bed is a heavy, rugged casting in which are mounted the working parts of the lathe. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting the workpiece and provides a base for the movement of carriage assembly which carries the tool.

2. Legs: The legs carry the entire load of machine and are firmly secured to floor by foundation bolts.

3. Headstock: The headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed and it serves as housing for the driving pulleys, back gears, headstock spindle, live centre and the feed reverse gear. The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindrical shaft that provides a drive from the motor to work holding devices.

4. Gear Box: The quick-change gear-box is placed below the headstock and contains a number of different sized gears.

5. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock and serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool against the job during operation. The main parts of carriage are:

a). The saddle is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. It provides support to cross-slide, compound rest and tool post.

b). The cross slide is mounted on the top of saddle, and it provides a mounted or automatic cross movement for the cutting tool.

c). The compound rest is fitted on the top of cross slide and is used to support the tool post and the cutting tool.

d). The tool post is mounted on the compound rest, and it rigidly clamps the cutting tool or tool holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line.

e). The apron is fastened to the saddle and it houses the gears, clutches and levers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The engagement of split nut lever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriage along the lathe bed.

6. Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock on the ways of the bed. The tailstock can slide along the bed to accommodate different lengths of workpiece between the centers. A tailstock clamp is provided to lock the tailstock at any desired position. The tailstock spindle has an internal taper to hold the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers and drills.



The engine lathe is an accurate and versatile machine on which many operations can be performed. These operations are:

1. Plain Turning and Step Turning

2. Facing

3. Parting

4. Drilling

5. Reaming

6. Boring

7. Knurling

8. Grooving

9. Threading

10. Forming

11. Chamfering

12. Filling and Polishing

13. Taper Turning

137 Responses to “Working Principle of Lathe Machine”

  1. monika chauhan

    this note is very good and very helpful in studies………thankyou……….

  2. kitur jairus

    I need an explanation of :
    1.cutting action of a lathe? the size of alathe is determine?

  3. Maheshwor Ghimire

    I need a good note on :
    1. Linear Measuring instrument: Block Gauges, Length Bridge, Comparators.
    2. Errors in measurement

  4. imene

    i wanna know to what the feed us given? and what is the support feed end of the job in lathe?

  5. Vikas Chahal

    good explaning

  6. madhu

    i dont know lathe principel and formula


    its very useful notes. easy to understand.
    helpful in study.

  8. boobs

    this is gud

  9. Abdur Rehman

    very good notes, I am impressed.


    this note is very good and very helpful in studies………thankyou……….

  11. simi

    this note is really informative and easily understandable….

  12. vinay

    excellent notes for the study for fresher.

  13. sirajudheen jbt

    really useful for. Assignmentz.. Tankz…

  14. Majju

    nice one

  15. admin


  16. Manish Das

    This note is very helpful….i have found many answers in this note…. Thank you..:)

  17. elang borneo

    thanks it help me…

  18. pritam

    nic notes .

  19. akshay

    so usefull for studying n better notes to think


    very gooooooooooood explaning in few words……………………….

  21. Oroso pere really came in handy!

  22. danish

    nice reply , thanks to this site

  23. ajay

    this note is very helpfull to me. this note might be used in machine workshop.
    thank you

  24. karanbir singh

    sir , i want explanation of all lathe operations and about the various cutting tools .

  25. kyabodalton

    very good explaination,but what principle does a lathe machine work on?

  26. debabrata

    very impressive note

  27. nishant


  28. admin

    Thanks for the comment

  29. Shubh

    gud and easy to understand information..!!

  30. vipin


  31. RAJAT


  32. Karthikeyan

    this note is very useful and thanks.

  33. salman amin

    very useful

  34. Swapnil valvi

    this machine very very workfull in this age .Bcoz most of parts of machine are use to make on this machine…..

    But i have dobught…anyone of u can tell me…what is the best perpose of this lathe machine?

  35. collins

    Got a very good idea from your note about the lathe machine. I would be working on the machine sometime.

  36. admin

    Thanks for the support

  37. MDU first Sem Syllabus of BASICS OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERINGEngineering Tutorials | Engineering Tutorials

    […] A Introduction to Machine Tools to Commonly used Machine Tools in a Workshop:- Lathe, Shaper, Planer, Milling, Drilling, Slotter. Introduction to Metal Cutting. Basic concept of […]

  38. abhishek parashar


  39. suresh mech

    this very useful part.thaks for all

  40. Dipak Umbardand

    It is so useful for us Thanks so much

  41. rajat

    very nice tips for student

  42. abhijeet kumar

    nice notes

  43. abhijeet kumar

    thanks for helping

  44. harsh bhadoria

    in easy word and simple to understand

  45. Er Yash singta

    great explain and easy to understand

  46. Sandeep jaiswal

    Very usefull note’s

  47. shashwat tyagi

    thanks for such a smart notes!!!



  49. md. saifullah alam

    very usefull notes

  50. admin

    Thanks for The comment

  51. admin

    Thanks for the comment. We are working to make it more useful.

  52. admin


  53. krunal patel

    Thank u for helping

  54. Indrajeetsinh Rathod

    This tutorial is really helpful to students… it is perfect manner

  55. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation.

  56. ishteyaqe

    Thanx alot…

  57. Betha.kumar


  58. Alok kumar

    Better script with figures

  59. majid ali

    l love engineering

  60. admin

    Thanks for the comment

  61. Types of lathes - Engineering Tutorials

    […] Lathes are available in large variety of types and sizes. It is difficult to classify them into categories. There is a fairly large variation in their design, construction and use. However, according to their construction and design we can classify the lathes as follows: […]

  62. Sagar rafique

    Thanx……….;;.! discription is in very easy language

  63. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation.

  64. ädîtyã

    Ek number baba

  65. admin


  66. maruthi

    supeb but i need the explations of operations performed by lathe

  67. admin


    Will try to give operations in detail. May be with videos.

  68. shriram gade

    Nice information gives about lathe m/c

  69. admin

    Thanks for liking the page.

  70. admin


  71. Prince sharma


  72. Yel

    Nice detailed explanation.

  73. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation.

  74. Anyewi George


  75. Ndubuisi

    This is good and nice. Very helpful in Mechanical Engineering

  76. admin

    Thanks for liking it.

  77. Rahul kumar

    Very nice explanation

  78. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation

  79. Mailarling.v.gidnakanal

    it’s easy to understand,nice explain very helpful our study thanks….

  80. monu

    I have no words to say about ……,….,………….,..very nice

  81. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation.

  82. admin

    Thanks for the comment.

  83. laxmi

    really a helpfull and nice description

  84. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation.

  85. Ashok gupta

    This note is very easy for uptu exam thank sir alot thank sir

  86. admin

    Thanks for the appreciation. Stay tuned.. We are preparing more like this.

  87. Raja Kushwaha

    i am intreated in lathe machine

  88. Naveen kumar

    Easy reading & best language thanks a lot’s sir

  89. Naveen kumar

    This is best site.I like this.

  90. swapnil kale

    Short n sweet explanation

  91. Manish Nakwal

    very good notes
    for studies

    tnqq so much

  92. barun boro

    my self Barun Boro my quistion is what is the principal of lathe machine

  93. Anodh kumar yadav

    This page is very helpful for mechanical students as well as for students.

  94. akshay

    nice explain

  95. teddy

    nice work

  96. pramod kumar chaurasiya

    Its a good fundamental to know about lathe machine thanks

  97. sammy

    maybe you could help me answer this question what is the difference in principle operation of lethe machine and milling mechine

  98. Ashish maurya

    very good notes…. this is the very simple word for examination… thnx a lot…..

  99. Ashish maurya

    very good notes…. this is the very simple word for examination… thnx a lot….. i m very happy

  100. vishal

    turner is best of all trades

  101. Shubham Ainapure

    thanx ……….. . . ……

  102. d

    Very good

  103. OMAR KHAN

    thanks a lot manhhh u guys made my assignment at the last date

  104. Saurav singh

    Thnx very helpful notes

  105. vishal

    ye bhot understable drawing he

  106. kunal jit

    Its very helpful for lathe machine work….thanks

  107. tejveer Singh

    Good machine

  108. Devesh Zagade

    Good information.. its very useful for a mechanical student

  109. avinash

    Very nice and simple to understand

  110. sandeep

    Its very helpful to me……
    Thank to all

  111. sachin vishwakarma

    it’s very useful lathe machine for me

  112. nupur

    its very good notes… for learning. thanku…

  113. Angiris Samuel .W.

    Well summarized information.
    However just as an addition:
    1. The required motions and subsequent direction for both the work piece and the tool would be very good.
    2. Typical illustrative diagrams for Chamfering, filling and polishing operations could also be added.
    3. The illustrative diagrams for Parting and Facing operations appear to have been interchanged. These may require

    Otherwise Cheers and thanks !!!!!

  114. Angiris Samuel .W.

    Well summarized information.
    However just as an addition:
    1. The required motions and subsequent direction for both the work piece and the tool would be very good.
    2. Typical illustrative diagrams for Chamfering, filling and polishing operations could also be added.
    3. The illustrative diagrams for Parting and Facing operations appear to have been interchanged. These may require

    Otherwise Cheers and thanks !!!!!

  115. Aditya

    The construction are not proper visual

  116. Naveen

    Very good information !!! I also suggest all the readers to go through the below link. The below link provides some more information about the Lathe Machine and its importance in mechanical engineering.

  117. divakar

    Very usefull for like engineering student…….


    This information about lathe is very usefull for me. THANK YOU….!!!

  119. admin

    It is our pleasure that you liked our content.

    And thanks for the comment.

  120. monika thete.

    good explantion ……with simple language…….

  121. Binod sahu


  122. kumar ritvik

    Gud explanation

  123. Md.Mushfaque Adeeb

    NYC explain about lathe machine so easy to understand

  124. अनुज चौरसिया

    Thanku so much, It is very important notes for Engineering student, lathe machine explanation is very easy & sort…… With simple language.

  125. kiranraj Chintada

    Excellent nothing to say anything wrong

  126. dinesh kawadia

    Really it’s a good explanation…..thnx a lot

  127. pranay paunfase

    very nice explanation

  128. Shabrez Ahmed

    Its very good Explanation
    Very helpfull
    Easy to understand

  129. pathak

    easy understanding of basic lathe, will help me in school project

  130. Cian salim

    Very helpful and easy to understand.. Thank you

  131. Leonard Tsuro

    Awesome explanation

  132. vipin yadav

    simple explanation and good for easy understand……

  133. Kannan l

    It’s very good and useful

  134. admin

    Thanks a ton

  135. Sarbah Ismaila

    Keep me updated on your posts through my emali

Leave a Reply