Working Principle of Lathe Machine

LATHE MACHINE

Working Principle: The lathe is a machine tool which holds the workpiece between two rigid and strong supports called centers or in a chuck or face plate which revolves. The cutting tool is rigidly held and supported in a tool post which is fed against the revolving work. The normal cutting operations are performed with the cutting tool fed either parallel or at right angles to the axis of the work.

The cutting tool may also be fed at an angle relative to the axis of work for machining tapers and angles.

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Construction: The main parts of the lathe are the bed, headstock, quick changing gear box, carriage and tailstock.

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1. Bed: The bed is a heavy, rugged casting in which are mounted the working parts of the lathe. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting the workpiece and provides a base for the movement of carriage assembly which carries the tool.

2. Legs: The legs carry the entire load of machine and are firmly secured to floor by foundation bolts.

3. Headstock: The headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed and it serves as housing for the driving pulleys, back gears, headstock spindle, live centre and the feed reverse gear. The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindrical shaft that provides a drive from the motor to work holding devices.

4. Gear Box: The quick-change gear-box is placed below the headstock and contains a number of different sized gears.

5. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock and serves the purpose of supporting, guiding and feeding the tool against the job during operation. The main parts of carriage are:

a). The saddle is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. It provides support to cross-slide, compound rest and tool post.

b). The cross slide is mounted on the top of saddle, and it provides a mounted or automatic cross movement for the cutting tool.

c). The compound rest is fitted on the top of cross slide and is used to support the tool post and the cutting tool.

d). The tool post is mounted on the compound rest, and it rigidly clamps the cutting tool or tool holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line.

e). The apron is fastened to the saddle and it houses the gears, clutches and levers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The engagement of split nut lever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriage along the lathe bed.

6. Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock on the ways of the bed. The tailstock can slide along the bed to accommodate different lengths of workpiece between the centers. A tailstock clamp is provided to lock the tailstock at any desired position. The tailstock spindle has an internal taper to hold the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers and drills.

 

LATHE OPERATIONS

The engine lathe is an accurate and versatile machine on which many operations can be performed. These operations are:

1. Plain Turning and Step Turning

2. Facing

3. Parting

4. Drilling

5. Reaming

6. Boring

7. Knurling

8. Grooving

9. Threading

10. Forming

11. Chamfering

12. Filling and Polishing

13. Taper Turning

130 Responses to “Working Principle of Lathe Machine”

  1. monika chauhan

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  2. kitur jairus

    I need an explanation of :
    1.cutting action of a lathe?
    2.how the size of alathe is determine?

  3. Maheshwor Ghimire

    I need a good note on :
    1. Linear Measuring instrument: Block Gauges, Length Bridge, Comparators.
    2. Errors in measurement

  4. imene

    i wanna know to what the feed us given? and what is the support feed end of the job in lathe?

  5. Vikas Chahal

    good explaning

  6. madhu

    i dont know lathe principel and formula

  7. KHUSHBU

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  8. boobs

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  9. Abdur Rehman

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  10. abhishek.raj836@gmail.com

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  15. admin

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  20. NAVEEN KUMAR

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  21. Oroso pere

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  22. danish

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  23. ajay

    this note is very helpfull to me. this note might be used in machine workshop.
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  24. karanbir singh

    sir , i want explanation of all lathe operations and about the various cutting tools .

  25. kyabodalton

    very good explaination,but what principle does a lathe machine work on?

  26. debabrata

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  27. nishant

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  28. admin

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  29. Shubh

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  30. vipin

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  31. RAJAT

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  32. Karthikeyan

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  33. salman amin

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  34. Swapnil valvi

    this machine very very workfull in this age .Bcoz most of parts of machine are use to make on this machine…..

    But i have dobught…anyone of u can tell me…what is the best perpose of this lathe machine?

  35. collins

    Got a very good idea from your note about the lathe machine. I would be working on the machine sometime.

  36. admin

    Thanks for the support

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    […] A Introduction to Machine Tools to Commonly used Machine Tools in a Workshop:- Lathe, Shaper, Planer, Milling, Drilling, Slotter. Introduction to Metal Cutting. Basic concept of […]

  38. abhishek parashar

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  40. Dipak Umbardand

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  56. ishteyaqe

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  60. admin

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  61. Types of lathes - Engineering Tutorials

    […] Lathes are available in large variety of types and sizes. It is difficult to classify them into categories. There is a fairly large variation in their design, construction and use. However, according to their construction and design we can classify the lathes as follows: […]

  62. Sagar rafique

    Thanx……….;;.! discription is in very easy language

  63. admin

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  64. ädîtyã

    Ek number baba

  65. admin

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  66. maruthi

    supeb but i need the explations of operations performed by lathe

  67. admin

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  68. shriram gade

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  69. admin

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    Thanks

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  72. Yel

    Nice detailed explanation.

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  74. Anyewi George

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  77. Rahul kumar

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  78. admin

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  81. admin

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  87. Raja Kushwaha

    i am intreated in lathe machine

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  90. swapnil kale

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  92. barun boro

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  94. akshay

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  95. teddy

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  96. pramod kumar chaurasiya

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  97. sammy

    maybe you could help me answer this question what is the difference in principle operation of lethe machine and milling mechine

  98. Ashish maurya

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  100. vishal

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  102. d

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  104. Saurav singh

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  106. kunal jit

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    Good machine

  108. Devesh Zagade

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  109. avinash

    Very nice and simple to understand

  110. sandeep

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  111. sachin vishwakarma

    it’s very useful lathe machine for me

  112. nupur

    its very good notes… for learning. thanku…

  113. Angiris Samuel .W.

    Well summarized information.
    However just as an addition:
    1. The required motions and subsequent direction for both the work piece and the tool would be very good.
    2. Typical illustrative diagrams for Chamfering, filling and polishing operations could also be added.
    3. The illustrative diagrams for Parting and Facing operations appear to have been interchanged. These may require
    corrections.

    Otherwise Cheers and thanks !!!!!

  114. Angiris Samuel .W.

    Well summarized information.
    However just as an addition:
    1. The required motions and subsequent direction for both the work piece and the tool would be very good.
    2. Typical illustrative diagrams for Chamfering, filling and polishing operations could also be added.
    3. The illustrative diagrams for Parting and Facing operations appear to have been interchanged. These may require
    corrections.

    Otherwise Cheers and thanks !!!!!

  115. Aditya

    The construction are not proper visual

  116. Naveen

    Very good information !!! I also suggest all the readers to go through the below link. The below link provides some more information about the Lathe Machine and its importance in mechanical engineering.

    https://www.gotmatter.com/the-lathe-machine-father-of-mechanical-engineering

  117. divakar

    Very usefull for like engineering student…….

  118. ANIKET JADHAV

    This information about lathe is very usefull for me. THANK YOU….!!!

  119. admin

    It is our pleasure that you liked our content.

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  120. monika thete.

    good explantion ……with simple language…….

  121. Binod sahu

    Future

  122. kumar ritvik

    Gud explanation

  123. Md.Mushfaque Adeeb

    NYC explain about lathe machine so easy to understand

  124. अनुज चौरसिया

    Thanku so much, It is very important notes for Engineering student, lathe machine explanation is very easy & sort…… With simple language.

  125. kiranraj Chintada

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  126. dinesh kawadia

    Really it’s a good explanation…..thnx a lot

  127. pranay paunfase

    very nice explanation

  128. Shabrez Ahmed

    Its very good Explanation
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